Policies of Joe Biden in USA
The American policies under the former president namely Donald trump has not only weakened America’s global power and influence but also created the power vacuum on different sites of the world. Joseph R. Biden on 20th January 2021, has taken the oath of 46th president of United States of America. It is expected that new Biden administration will fill the gap by reversing a few international policies of Donald Trump. However, traditional policies will remain constant but his method of persuasion and projection would be different from that of Trump.
The policies that are likely to be changed are: ‘Muslim ban,’ Paris Agreement on climate change, Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), US removal from World Health organization (WHO), UN human rights council and the Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP).
The ‘Muslim Ban’ was an immature move by former president Donald Trump that was enforced by signing an executive order 13769, on January 27, 2017. The naïve reason of it given by him was protection of American nation from Foreign terrorist entry into USA. The act was repealed by Joe Biden on his first day in office.
Paris agreement is the most significant global climate pact to date which seeks almost all the countries to set emissions reduction pledges. In 2019, Trump formally notified the United Nations that the United States would withdraw from the coalition of almost 200 countries working to move away from planet warming fossil fuels like coal, oil and natural gas. On his first day in office, Biden also signed a letter to reenter the United States into said accord. Reentering the agreement requires only one month’s notice, so the United States will be back in by March.
The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) was an agreement also referred to as the Iran Nuclear Deal, signed between Iran and P5+1 countries (US, Russia, China, France, Britain and Germany) on July 14, 2015 in former President Obama’s era. The six countries agreed to lift sanctions imposed on Iran, giving it access to the global economy. In return, Iran agreed to take steps to curb its ability to make a nuclear bomb. The Trump administration, on May 8, 2018, unilaterally withdrew from the aforementioned agreement. Biden has shown his willingness for the revival of accord. Despite it, the tougher stance of Washington on Iran would be constant.
Also, on the day one, Biden rejoined the World Health Organization (WHO), a UN agency that coordinates international health efforts. In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, Trump announced his intention to withdraw the United States from and cut funding to the WHO, limiting U.S. engagement with the body over its failure to reduce Chinese influence. Already, Biden directed top U.S. medical expert Anthony Fauci to speak to the body. Fauci confirmed that the United States will also join COVAX, a WHO-led initiative to distribute two billion COVID-19 vaccine doses around the world by the end of the year.
The current president said during his campaign that he would rejoin the UN Human Rights Council, a body the Trump administration pulled out of due to alleged anti-Israel bias and a membership that included human rights abusers, such as China and Venezuela.
The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) was the flagship of President Barack Obama’s strategic pivot to Asia. He treated trade deals as a priority during his tenure, and this particular deal would have strengthened America's position in the Asia-Pacific region, where China is growing its influence. Before President Donald J. Trump withdrew the United States in 2017, the TPP was set to become the world’s largest free trade deal, covering 40 percent of the global economy. The process of reentering into said accord will be the reality in upcoming times.
Besides, the new American leadership will surely work to restore America’s global leadership role as well as image which the country lost in few years. Trump was not in favour of it, therefore, ‘America First’ slogan was chanted on every platform. On many eves Trump stated that Washington would not play the role of ‘Policeman’ in the globe.
What is unlikely to be changed is Washington’s traditional approach towards China, India, North Korea and Middle East. Washington considers Beijing as the major security threat due to not only its rapid economic and military rise but became a challenger of United states on utmost global fronts. It might be possible that Biden administration’s handling of it might be different from that of Donald Trump but the containment ring will not be prevented. India, the new western ally will be advocated to pursue the prevention of the rise of China in Asia-Pacific. India has just signed the Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement, the final of the four foundational agreements with the US, and there is bipartisan consensus in Washington on India as a strategic partner. Not much is going to change on that count, unless Biden decides to take note of the grave human and religious rights violations in India.
As far as policy regarding North Korea is concerned, the country will face the same tougher stance of Washington as North Korean leader Kim Jong Un not only called for more advanced nuclear weapons and labeled the United States as their ‘biggest enemy’ but, in 2019 he called Biden a “rabid dog” that needed to be “beaten to death with a stick.”. Whereas, Biden called Kim a “thug” during the election campaign. It projects the tougher stance of Washington on North Korea.
The Middle-Eastern policy will also be the same with changes to the lesser extent. the Israel friendly policy will remain same. Biden has constantly declared “an ironclad commitment to Israel’s security”, and it will be very unlikely that he could reverse Trump’s decision to declare Jerusalem as Israel’s capital. Indeed, it is likely to ease up on Iran, while sticking to the fundamentals of the US’ approach to Iran, which sees Tehran as a troublemaker in the Greater Middle East and a threat to Israel. He talked about ending US support for the Saudi-led war in Yemen but, it is unlikely that he could move away from traditional ally Saudi-Arabia, a policy that is structurally guided, given several factors in the Middle-East. The normalization of Arab-Israel ties will continue further.
Biden’s policy of engagement with Pakistan is as traditional as it was before. Not only new US government but the nominated defense secretary, Lloyd Austin, also called for only military engagement with Pakistan on key issues such as Afghanistan and others. Indeed, Pakistan will advocate US or any other major power whenever it comes to peace-process but it will not support any such containment ring. The change in international scenario changed Pakistan’s aim and objective known as economic security. The country is playing the role of regional economic hub, in contemporary times. The better engagement with US can be possible not only through a massive economic investment in Pakistan but advocacy in economic sphere such as getting Pakistan out from FAFT grey list in February 2021. As, now a days, acquiring the aforementioned aim is Pakistan’s national interest.